The Mindoro Dwarf Buffalo, commonly known as the Tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis), is a unique and endangered species found exclusively in the Philippines. With its distinctive appearance and remarkable resilience, the Tamaraw has become a symbol of both the challenges faced by endangered wildlife and the ongoing conservation efforts dedicated to their protection.

The Tamaraw is a small-sized bovine, standing at around one meter tall at the shoulder and weighing approximately 300 kilograms. It is known for its stocky build, V-shaped horns, and dark brown to black fur. These gentle herbivores primarily inhabit the dense grasslands, bamboo thickets, and forested areas of Mindoro, where they find suitable grazing grounds and water sources.

Sadly, the Mindoro Dwarf Buffalo population has experienced a significant decline over the years, making them critically endangered. The main threats to their survival include habitat loss due to agriculture, illegal hunting, and diseases transmitted by domesticated animals. As a result, their numbers have dwindled to less than 500 individuals, emphasizing the urgent need for conservation efforts.

Various organizations like,,, and the Philippine government have recognized the importance of protecting the Tamaraw and have taken significant steps to ensure their survival. Conservation initiatives include the establishment of protected areas such as the Mounts Iglit-Baco National Park, which serves as a sanctuary for this mammal and other endemic species. Additionally, efforts to raise awareness about the Tamaraw’s plight, promote responsible tourism, and implement anti-poaching measures are crucial to their conservation.

The conservation of the Tamaraw goes beyond preserving a single species. By protecting it, we contribute to the preservation of Mindoro’s unique biodiversity and ecosystem. The Tamaraw is an integral part of the island’s cultural heritage and plays a vital role in maintaining the balance of its natural environment. Conservation efforts also benefit local communities by promoting sustainable livelihoods and ecotourism opportunities.

Where to find the Tamaraw in the Philippines?

The Tamaraw is endemic to the island of Mindoro in the Philippines. Within Mindoro, the primary location to find Tamaraws is the Mounts Iglit-Baco National Park (MIBNP). This protected area covers a vast expanse of approximately 75,445 hectares and is considered the last remaining stronghold of the Tamaraw population.

Mounts Iglit-Baco National Park is located in the central part of Mindoro, encompassing portions of Occidental Mindoro and Oriental Mindoro provinces. The park is characterized by rugged terrain, dense forests, grasslands, and rivers, providing a suitable habitat for the Tamaraw and other endemic wildlife.

Map of Mounts Iglit-Baco National Park the protected area for the Tamaraw

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Additional Information

Read more about the Tamaraw in Mindoro Island. Check out the links below to learn some interesting facts and useful information about this mammal.

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